Online Source: NINETEENTH-CENTURY CLAY TOBACCO PIPES IN CANADA (ABSTRACT) I. CWALKER, WALKER:CLAY PIPES.
Please google this abstract for a remarkable and in depth history of clay tobacco pipes.
"Pipe making technology remained substantially unchanged from the 17th century onward. A sausage or tadpole-shaped piece of clay was rolled to the right length and thickness, and a wire was then inserted the length of the stem to form the bore.The clay with inserted wire was then placed in an open two or three part metal mold, which when closed formed the final shape. A plunger was used to make the bowl cavity and the wire to connect the stem bore to the bowl. Once removed from the mold, the pipe was cleaned, and stamps for additional decoration or maker's mark could be applied." By the 19th century the mold itself contained the maker's mark and any decorations.
Online Source: Odyssey Marine Exploration, Odyssey Papers 21, The Jacksonville 'Blue China' Shipwreck (Site BA02): Clay Tobacco Pipes by J. Byron Sudbury & Ellen Gerth, 2011 www.shipwreck.net
A few more notes from: Walker: Clay Pipes. Nineteenth-Century Clay Tobacco Pipes in Canada (Abstract). Accepted September 1970) I. C. Walker sites references and bibliography. Again, this is an excellent abstract for those who want to learn more in-depth information of clay tobacco pipes.
*In 1891 the United States made it mandatory for imported items to be marked with their country of origin. The clay pipe trade to the New World was largely over by 1891.
*During the later half of the 17th century and most of the 18th century, Bristol (England) was possibly the major British center for pipes exported to the New World, but during the American Revolution this trade fell off drastically to be taken over before the middle of the 19th century by Glasgow makers.
*On the stem in the slideshow which has Glasgow, and Murray: The firm of William Murray was making pipes from 1833 to 1861 (possibly as early as 1826). The associated name goes back on pottery to 1790.
*On the stem in the slideshow that has Scotland and McDougall: McDougall's firm was founded in 1846 by an ex-manager of Murray's named Duncan McDougall. That firm lasted all the way to 1967.
*On the stem in the slideshow that has Glasgow, Scotland, W.White & Son. White was a rival in the field with McDougall who outlasted White. White was manufacturing 1877-1890 and beyond, when it then went to mass production in 1890 of 14,000 pipes per day.
Our collection has stems from Germany, Scotland, and other places are too worn to note. There is clearly: Glasgow/Murray; McDougall/Scotland; Glasgow Scotland/W. White & Son.
Our bowls posted in this slideshow are:
*One UNKNOWN with the eagles on both sides.
*One from Germany (letters notes " \any " on one side) and the words ''Vest Poc..." (perhaps for an early version vest pocket) on the other side of the bowl.
*One Home Rule pipe bowl. Irish-themed pipe with a harp surrounded by clover. Manufactured by the McDougall firm of Glasgow Scotland.
(These Home Rule pipes were manufactured in Ireland, Scotland Holland. They were being sold as early as 1850's, most being made between 1870-1900.) *see reference below
* "Home Rule pipes were trendy during the 19th century when the potato famine in Ireland, conflicts with the British government over secession, land reform, and religion caused massive emigration, much to the United States. The Home Rule pipe-themes were a way to flaunt objections to British treatment...." of the Irish.
Some of these Home Rule pipes have been found with bits of green paint still on them. The Home Rule pipe photographed at Fort Vancouver is exactly like ours in the slideshow and was found in pre 1887 strata.
Online Source; Google: Within the Collection: A Look Inside the Fort Vancouver Museum: Tobacco Pipes; NCRI Curation Series No.2 by Heidi Pierson
If anyone can reference our eagle bowl, please leave a comment.